Hydrogen has obvious relief effect on gout.
Gout is an ancient disease, which is described by western medicine. It often comes on suddenly at night, and the symptoms usually reach the peak within a few hours. The affected joints and surrounding soft tissues are dark red, obviously swollen, locally hot and painful. At first, it is mostly a single joint involvement, with the big toe joint and the first metatarsophalangeal joint being the most common, and sometimes it is also manifested in the ankle, knee, finger, wrist and elbow joint.
Statistics show that gout pain can reach 39% of severe burn pain, 36% of kidney calculi pain, 34% of fracture pain, 29% of childbirth pain and 25% of car accident pain.
Gout is a recurrent inflammatory disease caused by the increase of purine biosynthesis and metabolism, excessive uric acid production or poor uric acid excretion, and the deposition of urate crystals in synovium, bursa, cartilage and other tissues of joints.
Uric acid has no physiological function in the human body. Under normal circumstances, 2/3 of uric acid produced in the body is excreted by the kidneys and 1/3 by the large intestine. Uric acid in the body is constantly produced and excreted, so it maintains a certain concentration in the blood. In the process of purine synthesis and decomposition, there are many kinds of enzymes involved. Because of the disorder of congenital abnormal metabolism of enzymes, the synthesis of uric acid increases or the excretion of uric acid decreases, which can all cause hyperuricemia. When the concentration of uric acid in blood is too high, uric acid is deposited in joints, soft tissues, cartilage and kidneys in the form of sodium salt, which leads to the inflammatory reaction of tissues and becomes the bane of gout.
Studies have shown that the annual incidence of gout is less than 0.1% in men with serum uric acid level below 416μmol/L, less than 0.4% in men with 416 to 475μmol/L, less than 0.8% in men with 476 to 534μmol/L, and 4.3% in men with 535 to 594μmol/L, with a level greater than 595 μ mol/L.
It can be inferred from the pathogenesis of gout that there are the following ways to block the onset of gout or relieve gout symptoms:
(1) inhibit uric acid synthesis;
(2) promoting uric acid emission;
(3) Eliminate inflammatory factors.
Next, we will analyze the possible mechanism of relieving gout by hydrogen water from three aspects: the anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen, the pH value of hydrogen water and the characteristics of small molecules.
Anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen
The onset of acute gouty arthritis is due to the high concentration and supersaturation of uric acid in blood, which leads to the deposition of sodium urate microcrystals in articular cartilage, periosteum and surrounding tissues, activation of local monocytes and macrophages, induction of infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils, secretion of inflammatory factors and a series of inflammatory reactions, which eventually leads to joint injury.
Among many inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and so on play a major role.
Hydrogen can reduce the inflammatory response by reducing the release of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and HMGB1 and increasing the release of anti-inflammatory factor interleukin -10. In addition, hydrogen can also play an anti-inflammatory role by regulating signal pathways. Some studies have found that inhaling hydrogen before liver transplantation in rats can reduce inflammatory reaction, thus protecting rats from liver injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion. Hydrogen can inhibit excessive inflammatory reaction and reduce endothelial injury caused by sepsis by activating Nrf2/HO-1. Hydrogen can inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory factors by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and reduce the inflammatory response of kidney transplantation.
Effect of pH value
Scholars' research shows that urine alkalization can effectively remove uric acid from the body through diet regulation. However, the pH value of hydrogen water is generally kept between 7.1 and 7.6, showing weak alkalinity, which can be used as one of the methods of diet adjustment.
The most important factor for the formation of uric acid stones is the pH value of acidic urine, which is the prerequisite for the formation of uric acid stones. On the basis of existing clinical experience, alkali therapy such as sodium bicarbonate and potassium citrate is advocated.
Studies have shown that alkaline drinking water can act on urate anion transporter URAT-1 in the brush-like margin of proximal renal tubule of mice, inhibit the expression of URAT-1 mRNA, and then reduce the production of URAT-1 protein, reduce the reabsorption of urate by kidney, and reduce the level of serum uric acid. At the same time, drinking water can also act on the uric acid transporter OAT1 in the renal tissue of the proximal tubule basement membrane of mice, increasing the expression of OAT1 mRNA and then increasing the production of OAT1 protein, secreting urate into the lumen, playing a role in renal secretion and reducing the level of serum uric acid.
Small molecular groups promote the absorption of water molecules
There has been some controversy about the existence of small molecule water before, but in 2018, the researchers of Yanshan University measured the width of water cluster cluster line by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which proved that small molecule water can exist stably.
In the process of water freely entering human cell membrane, small molecular groups can quickly penetrate the nucleus and DNA, improve the metabolic function of cells and participate in life activities. The characteristics of small molecular groups promote absorption and facilitate the excretion of urine.
This is basically consistent with the feedback from friends who drink hydrogen water around them. After drinking hydrogen water, the frequency of urine discharge increases, which is conducive to the timely discharge of uric acid.
To sum up, we conclude that the mechanism of action of hydrogen water to relieve gout is as follows:
(1)The anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen in hydrogen water can eliminate inflammatory factors and relieve gout symptoms;
(2) The higher pH value and small molecular group characteristics of hydrogen and water can promote the excretion of uric acid.
However, there is not enough evidence about whether hydrogen water can inhibit the formation of uric acid. At the same time, it can be inferred from the above mechanism that drinking hydrogen water can not completely cure gout, but it can completely relieve gout.