Six ways of hydrogen entering the body, and experimental results
Hydrogen molecules can enter the body through hydrogen inhalation, drinking hydrogen-rich water, injecting hydrogen-rich saline, dropping hydrogen-rich liquid into the eyes, bathing in hydrogen-rich water, taking hydrogen-producing drugs or hydrogen inducers orally, etc., and disperse to various internal organs. Its therapeutic effect has been observed in animal model experiments of many diseases at home and abroad.
Hydrogen can be used at a safe concentration (below 4% or above 75%) in a ventilated environment. With the help of a hydrogen concentration monitor, the concentration of hydrogen can be easily controlled. At present, hydrogen can be produced by electrolyzing water, and the patient can be supplied with hydrogen through a mask or nasal catheter.
On the market, the hydrogen machine with a gas production of 300 ml per minute has a hydrogen concentration of about 2%. A hydrogen machine with a gas output of 600 ml per minute has a hydrogen concentration of about 4% inhaled into the human body; A hydrogen-oxygen machine with a total gas production of 3 liters per minute (hydrogen: oxygen = 2: 1) has a hydrogen concentration of about 10%.
In 2007, Japan Medical University reported the intervention of 2% hydrogen in rats with cerebral thrombosis, and found that the volume of cerebral ischemia injury decreased significantly. They also reported the experiment of treating myocardial ischemia in rats with 2% concentration of hydrogen. The results showed that hydrogen molecules reduced the incidence of ischemic heart disease.
The effectiveness of hydrogen therapy can also be seen in animal model experiments of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemorrhagic shock and hyperoxia lung injury.
In 2008, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in the United States inhaled 2% hydrogen with a mask to mice. It was found that this method could slow down the up-regulation of inflammatory mediators interleukin (1L)-1β, 1L-6 and tumor necrosis factor-A induced by grafts, and significantly reduce lipid peroxidation and neutrophil recruitment.
In 2019, the Medical College of Chiba University in Japan studied the distribution of hydrogen in rats after continuous inhalation of 3% concentration of hydrogen, and found that hydrogen could quickly and freely spread into various organs, and the concentration in the liver and brain of rats reached its peak in about 5 minutes.
Drinking hydrogen-rich water
Hydrogen-rich water is easy to prepare, safe and convenient for clinical application and popularization.
At present, there are four commonly used preparation methods:
① Electrolysis: By electrolyzing water, hydrogen and oxygen are produced at the same time. Usually, the saturated concentration of hydrogen in water is about 1.6mg/L.
② Hydrogen production by magnesium filter element: metal magnesium is added into the filter element, and when water flows through the filter element, hydrogen is generated by displacement reaction. However, with the increase of usage times, the filter element is oxidized, and its hydrogen production capacity will decrease.
③ Hydrogen production by hydrogen rod: the basic principle is the same as that of magnesium filter, so that the hydrogen rod (containing magnesium) reacts with water in a closed container, and hydrogen is generated around the hydrogen rod, but the effect will be reduced due to oxidation of magnesium after repeated use.
④ High-pressure dissolution method: High-concentration hydrogen is dissolved in water by high pressure and special process, and it is sealed and stored. Under high pressure, the concentration of hydrogen in water can reach more than 3 mg/L.
In 2009, Forsyth Institute in Boston, USA reported that the intestinal inflammation of mice with inflammatory bowel disease was significantly improved by drinking hydrogen-rich water.
In 2009, Kyushu University in Japan reported that the symptoms of Parkinson's disease induced by drugs were successfully alleviated by letting mice drink hydrogen-rich water.
In 2010, the University of Pittsburgh reported that drinking hydrogen-rich water every day in mice after kidney transplantation can maintain their renal function and prevent chronic rejection.
In 2012, Okayama University in Japan found that drinking hydrogen-rich water can reduce the incidence of liver cancer in the mouse model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-hepatocellular carcinoma.
Other studies have shown that drinking hydrogen-rich water can also help to alleviate the aging of periodontal tissues in rats.
Inject hydrogen-rich brine
The hydrogen concentration in hydrogen-rich brine is generally lower than that of oral hydrogen-rich water, which is about 1 mg/L. Compared with oral administration of hydrogen-rich water, injection of hydrogen-rich brine is easier to control the concentration of hydrogen, and also has low cost, convenience and safety. Isotonic saline solution in which hydrogen is dissolved can be used for intravenous or intraperitoneal injection to deliver hydrogen into the body.
In 2009, China's Naval Medical University reported that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline had neuroprotective effect on neonatal rats with cerebral hypoxia.
In 2015, Weifang Medical University found that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline can reduce the level of serum propylene glycol and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in skeletal muscle, and increase the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, suggesting that hydrogen-rich saline has protective effect on injured skeletal muscle.
In 2016, Harbin Medical University of China found that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline can improve the cardiac function, reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells in myocardial tissue and focal myolysis of myocardial cells, and improve the survival rate of rats.
In 2018, Ehime University in Japan found that intravenous injection of 5ml of hydrogen-rich saline into gerbils, a model of hearing loss, could reduce cochlear damage and partially restore their hearing.
Eye drops of hydrogen-rich liquid
In 2010, Japan Medical University reported that continuous drip of hydrogen-rich liquid into the eyes could alleviate acute retinal ischemia caused by elevated intraocular pressure in rats and alleviate retinal injury.
In 2019, Kumamoto University in Japan found that organ preservation solution rich in hydrogen can reduce oxidative stress injury and hepatocyte apoptosis of rat liver graft, prolong graft preservation time and improve graft function.
In 2017, Nagoya University in Japan found that perfusion of hydrogen-rich saline solution into the left thoracic cavity during lung ischemia in rats could significantly improve lung function, while the level of pro-inflammatory factors decreased significantly.
Oral hydrogen-producing drugs or hydrogen inducers
Hydrogenated coral calcium, an oral hydrogen-producing drug or hydrogen inducer, is a kind of negative hydrogen ion powder produced by solid-state hydrogenation technology, which will slowly release hydrogen when exposed to water. Negative hydrogen ion powder is a strong reducing agent, which has obvious antioxidant effect.
In 2010, Miyazaki University in Japan found that feeding hydrogenated coral calcium to mice could enhance the endogenous antioxidant capacity of hippocampus in mice.
In 2016, the School of Life Science and Technology of Xi 'an Jiaotong University in China established a mouse aging model, and orally administered hydrogenated coral calcium to mice for 30 consecutive days. It was found that it could improve the antioxidant capacity of mouse tissues.
However, the safety data of hydrogenated coral calcium used in human body is lacking, which needs to be verified by clinical trials.
Lactulose is an effective hydrogen inducer, which can promote the digestion and glycolysis of colon flora, and then significantly increase the hydrogen production in intestinal tract.
In 2013, Changhai Hospital of China's Naval Medical University reported that oral lactulose can alleviate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats and alleviate colitis induced by sodium dextran.
In 2015, Shaoxing Hospital of Zhejiang University found that oral lactulose can promote liver regeneration in rats after hepatectomy.
These may all play a role by increasing the production of endogenous hydrogen.